Polypeptides are compounds in which alpha-amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds and are also intermediates in protein hydrolysis. A compound obtained by dehydration condensation of two amino acid molecules is called a dipeptide, and analogously, a tripeptide, a tetrapeptide, a pentapeptide, and the like. A compound usually obtained by dehydration condensation of 10 to 100 amino acid molecules is called a polypeptide.
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The specific synthesis consists of the following cycles:
The Fmoc protected column and monomer must be protected with an amino protecting group by a piperidine.
Activation and cross-linking
The carboxyl group of the next amino acid is activated by an activator. The chemical process is commonly used as an activator by HBTU/HCTU/HITU/HATU+NMM/DIPEA or HOBT+DIC, and the activated monomer is cross-linked with the free amino group to form a peptide bond. In this step, a large amount of super-concentration reagent is used to drive the reaction to completion. Cycle: The two steps of the reaction are repeated until the synthesis is complete. After the end of the amino acid condensation, the appropriate amount of TFA can be used for elution. According to the acidity and alkalinity, a 10% TFA/DCM solution can be selected to 100% TFA, and so on. (Note: This method is personal synthesis experience, there is no literature available for reference; can be referred to as needed. Knowledge is limited, hope to be cautious)
HPLC analytical purification
Analytical HPLC uses a column and pump system that can withstand high pressures, allowing the use of very fine particles (3-10 μm). Thus the polypeptide is highly analyzed within a few minutes.
High performance liquid chromatography hplc process
HPLC is divided into two categories: ion exchange and reversed phase. Ion exchange HPLC relies on direct charge interactions between the polypeptide and the solid phase. A column carries a specific charge in a certain pH range and becomes a ionic body, while a polypeptide or a mixture of polypeptides exhibits opposite charges from its amino acid composition. Separation is a charge interaction that elutes a polypeptide by variable pH, ionic strength, or both, usually with a low ionic strength solution, which is then stepped up or stepped up until the peptide is eluted. An example of ion exchange separation uses a strong cation exchange column. For example, sulfoethylaspartimide is separated by positive charge in acidic pH. 
Reversed phase HPLC conditions were the opposite of normal chromatography. The polypeptide is attached to the column by hydrophobic interaction and eluted with reduced ionic strength, such as increasing the hydrophobicity of the eluent. Typically the column consists of a hydrocarbon chain covalently adsorbed onto the silicon, this chain having a length of G4-G8 carbon atoms. Because elution is a hydrophobic effect. Long-chain columns are smaller than short-chain pairs, and high-charged peptides are good. On the other hand, large hydrophobic peptides are eluted with short-chain columns. However, in general practice, there is not much difference between the two types of column interconversions. The other types of carriers are composed of carbohydrates, such as phenyl.
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Roll belly: supine abdominal exercise upper abdominal rectus upper part (upper abdomen) graphic tutorial
In fact, people's most commonly used sit-ups have little effect on abdominal training, and they may damage the spine. Many of the US military's training has been removed from sit-ups because it has been found that sit-ups can cause back injuries and Pain or numbness caused by compression of the spinal cord. In contrast, Crunch is more scientific and practical.
Target exercise site: upper rectus abdominis (upper abdomen)
1. The body is lying on the floor mat, the knees are flexed to about 90 degrees, the back muscles and the spine are relaxed, the legs are close together and straightened, and the feet are placed flat on the ground.
2. Use the strength of the rectus abdominis to lift the upper back and curl the body. The lower back does not leave the ground
1. Pay attention to the difference between the abdomen and sit-ups: when lifting the body, the sit-ups can not leave the ground, and the abdomen requires the lower back to stay away from the ground, so the belly is smaller than the sit-up, safe and reliable, and The abdomen stimulation is more persistent, because the body is lifted more than 30°, and the abdomen is basically unstressed.
2. Rolling the abdomen, it is best not to hold the head, so as not to cause cervical spine injury. There are many types depending on the arm form:
(1) Ordinary form: knees, two arms close to the ground
(2) arms crossed Crunch: two palms crossed on the chest
(3) Touch arm belly: knees, both arms close to the thigh
(4) Shuttle between the palms: knees, the knees are slightly separated, and the palms are swept forward and upward.
(5) Vertical leg abdomen: lifting the leg belly
(6) Touching the abdomen: Junyu commonly used mode, lying on the pad, the thigh is perpendicular to the ground, the calf is parallel to the ground (as shown below, but does not hold the head), when the belly is approaching, the hand is close to the calf position
3. Some forms of the belly are not lying on the tablet:
(1) slanting abdomen: can be used when there is a certain abdominal force
(2) Rolling the ball on the ball: pay attention to balance
In short, there are a lot of patterns in the belly, you can always choose the same for your own, or rotate in order to adjust the fun of exercise.
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